InTramCities with Gordon Stewart   

Infrastructure, Architecture and Environment along streets with trams : A major photography project.

New in 2024 : Bordeaux (France, above)


Gordon Stewart travels regularly throughout Europe to photograph streets with trams.  When Gordon and his father Ian first started visiting tramways in West Germany in the 1970s it seemed that it was a matter of recording street scenes before the trams eventually disappeared, either into tunnels in city centres or as a result of the outright closure of networks. The renaissance of tramways, beginning in the 1980s, has meant that there is now an ever-increasing amount of subject matter for this tramway photography project. There are now over 41,000 images from 146 tramway systems

What makes this collection important ? Photographs of tramcars are common. Photographs of city centres including their trams are numerous. Photos exist of new tramway developments and their inaugural celebrations. Photos of unusual tram workings can be found. InTramCities photos are snapshots in time of typical scenes not just in the well-covered locations of a network but also in places rarely recorded for study or for posterity.     

is limited to light rail systems with a predominantly urban tramway character

- The photographs give a visual record of a tramway city with typical scenes on the day of the visit only
- The recent aim has been to cover as much of the tramway system as possible in the time available

- The website does not provide a history or technical description of the tramways
- The website is an educational resource for researchers and enthusiasts alike and is non-commercial. 

The tramway systems : Scroll down for the list of tramways covered in city sequence (and year sequence within this for systems visited on multiple occasions) with link to photos.

Presentation : All series are presented on-line in a nine-per-screen (12 from 2023 onwards) format below a tabular list of photos with details of actual or nearest tram stop, direction of view, direction in which the tram is travelling and tram number where available. Photos are listed in the sequence in which they were taken and for more recent series, the name of the street along which the trams are running is shown in the comments column, but only where there is a change of street.

Catalogue : You can view or download the full photograph catalogue as an MS Excel format spreadsheet. The approximate file size is 2.1 MB. 
Updated to : 3/12
/23.  Click here

Maps : For route maps and diagrams, please go to the website of the transport operator or if appropriate the local transport coordinating body. Most have a range of excellent downloadable maps, generally in pdf format but often also as jpg/gif format images

Digital photography was adopted in 2004, generally resulting in greater network coverage and improved image quality

All photos are Copyright  Copyright.jpg  Gordon Stewart / InTramCities  1980-2023 except for the Nordhausen 2005 set for which the copyright is owned by Phil Barnes

Use of images : Images may be made available by arrangement for approved uses such as research, publications and materials promoting tramway schemes. Please contact the webmaster. You are welcome to link to these pages. Please do not copy photos for insertion into other websites or publications without permission from the webmaster.

Contact the webmaster :  Send an e-mail to Gordon Stewart at InTramCities

PHOTOGRAPH SERIES LIST and links to the images : Click on the Year in the table below alongside the selected city.
See below for the special report regarding West Germany in the 1970s and other tramway photographs by Ian Stewart

Note : 1000 pixel size photographs are not available on line at present, so the onward links on the tram system page do not work. Only the reduced size images (9/12 per page) are available 

Tram System English NameCountry Year  (click to view) No. of Photos
Aarhus Denmark202385
Alicante / AlacantSpain2013135
Almada Portugal2019136
Amsterdam Netherlands 1986 15
Amsterdam Netherlands 2007 444
Antwerpen AntwerpBelgium 1985 65
Augsburg Germany 1984 20
Augsburg Germany 2003 67
Bad Schandau - Kirnitzschtal Germany 2004 20
Barcelona Spain 2010 270
Basel Switzerland 1996 52
Basel Switzerland 2008 519
Berlin Germany 1983 12
Berlin Germany 1998 148
Berlin Germany 2005 397
Berlin Germany 2006 225
Bern Switzerland 1988 10
Bern Switzerland 1996 65
Bern Switzerland 2001 5
Bielefeld Germany 1983 8
Bielefeld Germany 2002 65
Bilbao / BilboSpain2015181
Birmingham - West Midlands United Kingdom200031
Birmingham - West Midlands United Kingdom2016154
Blackpool United Kingdom 1982 8
Blackpool United Kingdom 1984 25
Blackpool United Kingdom 2005 129
BlackpoolUnited Kingdom201377
Bochum-Gelsenkirchen Germany 1983 6
Bochum-Gelsenkirchen Germany 1985 34
Bochum-Gelsenkirchen Germany 1986 61
Bochum-Gelsenkirchen Germany 1988 30
Bochum-Gelsenkirchen Germany 1991 69
Bochum-Gelsenkirchen Germany 1995 94
Bochum-Gelsenkirchen Germany 2002 45
Bonn Germany 1983 8
Bonn Germany 1984 10
Bonn Germany 2001 99
Bordeaux France 2008 524
Brandenburg Germany 1998 54
Brandenburg Germany 2005 59
Bratislava Slovakia 1986 22
Bratislava Slovakia 2007 271
Braunschweig Germany 1983 5
Braunschweig Germany 1998 73
Bremen Germany 2013 464
Brno Czech Republic 2006 548
Brno Czech Republic 2007 114
Brussel / Bruxelles BrusselsBelgium 1983 40
Brussel / Bruxelles BrusselsBelgium 1985 40
Brussel / Bruxelles BrusselsBelgium 2012 519
Budapest Hungary 1986 122
Budapest Hungary 2006 494
Charleroi Belgium 1983 7
Charleroi Belgium 1997 13
Chemnitz Germany 1997 32
Cottbus Germany 2005 65
Darmstadt Germany 1984 33
Den Haag The HagueNetherlands 1986 40
Den Haag The HagueNetherlands 2013 392
Den HaagThe HagueNetherlands2016430
Dortmund Germany 1984 84
Dortmund Germany 1986 8
Dortmund Germany 1988 36
Dortmund Germany 1991 99
Dortmund Germany 1995 79
Dortmund Germany 2002 76
Dresden Germany 1997 117
Dresden Germany 2004 228
Dublin Ireland 2005 117
Dublin Ireland 2013 150
Duisburg Germany 1984 24
Duisburg Germany 1986 16
Duisburg Germany 1995 18
Duisburg Germany 2002 30
Dusseldorf Germany 1983 7
Dusseldorf Germany 1984 16
Dusseldorf Germany 1985 48
Dusseldorf Germany 1986 26
Dusseldorf Germany 1991 22
Dusseldorf Germany 1995 44
Dusseldorf Germany 2001 171
Dusseldorf Germany 2002 10
EdinburghUnited Kingdom2014117
EdinburghUnited Kingdom201633
EdinburghUnited Kingdom2023128
Essen Germany 1983 11
Essen Germany 1985 66
Essen Germany 1986 36
Essen Germany 1988 86
Essen Germany 1991 48
Essen Germany 1995 59
Essen Germany 2002 120
Frankfurt an der Oder Germany 2005 72
Frankfurt-am-Main Germany 1984 122
Frankfurt-am-Main Germany 1987 80
Frankfurt-am-Main Germany 1996 62
Freiburg Germany 2000 67
Gdansk Poland 2011 383
Geneve GenevaSwitzerland 1988 18
Geneve GenevaSwitzerland 2000 25
Geneve GenevaSwitzerland 2005 179
Geneve GenevaSwitzerland 2007 161
Gent Belgium 1985 17
Gent Belgium 1997 59
Gent Belgium 1999 36
Gmunden Austria 2003 15
Gornoslasko-Zaglebiowska MetropoliaUpper SilesiaPoland2009336
Goteborg GothenburgSweden 1990 57
Goteborg GothenburgSweden 2007 350
Grenoble France 2007 243
Halle Germany 1997 66
Hannover Germany 1983 23
Hannover Germany 1991 65
Hannover Germany 1998 109
Heidelberg Germany 1981 6
Heidelberg Germany 1984 7
Heidelberg Germany 1987 15
Heidelberg Germany 1996 79
Helsinki / Helsingfors Finland 1989 5
Helsinki / Helsingfors Finland 1990 18
Innsbruck Austria 2003 44
Istanbul Turkey 1994 14
Istanbul Turkey 2009 222
Karlsruhe Germany 1987 29
Karlsruhe Germany 1996 105
Kassel Germany 2002 146
Gornoslasko-Zaglebiowska Metropolia
Upper SilesiaPoland 2009 336
Knokke-De Panne Belgium 1983 4
Knokke-De Panne Belgium 1997 68
Knokke-De Panne Belgium 1999 13
Krakow Poland 2009 418
Krefeld Germany 1986 23
Lausanne Switzerland 2000 19
Le HavreFrance2015178
Le MansFrance2019170
Leipzig Germany 1997 170
Lille France 1997 25
Lille France 1999 5
Linz Austria 2003 77
Lisboa LisbonPortugal 2007 356
London United Kingdom 2008 137
Ludwigshafen Germany 1981 3
Ludwigshafen Germany 1984 17
Ludwigshafen Germany 1987 5
Ludwigshafen Germany 1996 17
Lyon LyonsFrance 2006 230
Lyon LyonsFrance 2007 38
Magdeburg Germany 1991 39
Magdeburg Germany 1998 85
Magdeburg Germany 2005 72
Mainz Germany 1984 20
Mainz Germany 1987 6
Mainz Germany 1996 24
Manchester United Kingdom 1992 43
Manchester United Kingdom 2005 52
Manchester United Kingdom 2007 34
Manchester United Kingdom 2009 63
Manchester United Kingdom 2010 49
Manchester United Kingdom 2011 64
Manchester United Kingdom 2013 88
ManchesterUnited Kingdom201457
ManchesterUnited Kingdom201563
ManchesterUnited Kingdom201614
ManchesterUnited Kingdom201797
ManchesterUnited Kingdom2019114
ManchesterUnited Kingdom202390
Mannheim Germany 1981 7
Mannheim Germany 1984 32
Mannheim Germany 1987 43
Mannheim Germany 1996 159
Milano MilanItaly 1999 83
Milano MilanItaly 2008 482
Minsk Belarus 1985 28
Montpellier France 2009 328
Moskva MoscowRussia 1985 42
Most & Litvinov Czech Republic201797
Mulheim Germany 1983 7
Mulheim Germany 1985 9
Mulheim Germany 1986 29
Mulheim Germany 1995 17
Mulheim Germany 2002 41
Mulhouse France 2008 169
Munchen MunichGermany 1984 31
Munchen MunichGermany 2003 176
Munchen MunichGermany 2012 260
Nantes France 2006 427
Nice France 2009 291
Norrkoping Sweden 2008 192
Nottingham United Kingdom 2004 122
Nottingham United Kingdom 2012 65
NottinghamUnited Kingdom2015101
NottinghamUnited Kingdom2019104
Nurnberg NurembergGermany 1984 24
Oberhausen Germany 2002 16
Olomouc Czech Republic 2007 74
Orleans France 2013 222
Oslo Norway 1992 43
Oslo Norway 2006 300
Paris (Grand Paris) Greater ParisFrance 1997 75
Paris (Grand Paris) Greater ParisFrance 2007 190
Paris (Grand Paris) Greater ParisFrance 2013 183
Paris (Grand Paris)Greater ParisFrance2014189
Paris (Grand Paris)Greater ParisFrance2015141
Paris (Grand Paris)Greater ParisFrance2017103
Plzen Czech Republic 2004 96
Porto OportoPortugal 2008 358
Potsdam Germany 1998 75
Potsdam Germany 2005 150
Poznan Poland 2006 373
Praha PragueCzech Republic 1986 80
Praha PragueCzech Republic 2004 478
Praha PragueCzech Republic 2006 122
PrahaPragueCzech Republic2017413
Riga Latvia 2012 407
Roma RomeItaly 2005 155
Rotterdam Netherlands 1986 39
RotterdamNetherlands          2014478
Schoneiche-Rudersdorf Germany 1998 31
Schoneiche-Rudersdorf Germany 2005 32
Schoneiche-Rudersdorf Germany 2006 8
Sevilla SevilleSpain 2011 82
Sheffield United Kingdom 1999 85
Sheffield United Kingdom 2003 27
Sheffield United Kingdom 2004 94
SheffieldUnited Kingdom201754
St EtienneFrance2015141
St Petersburg Russia 1985 60
Stockholm Sweden 2008 157
Strasbourg France 1996 30
Strausberg Germany 1998 14
Stuttgart Germany 1984 44
Stuttgart Germany 1987 57
Stuttgart Germany 1996 147
Szczecin Poland 2006 311
TorinoTurinItaly2015 405
UtrechtNetherlands2016 121
Warszawa WarsawPoland 1987 41
Warszawa WarsawPoland 2007 377
Weinheim (OEG)Germany19875
Woltersdorf Germany 2005 22
Wroclaw Poland 2006 314
Wuppertal Germany 1985 28
Wurzburg Germany 1984 6
Zurich Switzerland 1988 4
Zurich Switzerland 1996 56
Zurich Switzerland 1997 68
Zurich Switzerland 1999 50
Zurich Switzerland 2008 36

West Germany in the 1970s  :  The photographs of Gordon Stewart and Ian Stewart

Gordon Stewart and his father Ian visited West German tramways on several occasions in the 1970s, taking a limited number of photographs with varying results. It was an era when the future of tramways was being vigorously debated as operators faced the need to modernise at great cost or concede to the strongly-vocal roads lobby supporting investment to assist the private motorist, consigning trams to the history books or at best sending them underground. In West Germany a number of cities formulated grand plans for underground tramways, some of which were, at least in part, to be realised, such as at Essen (see photo below taken in 1977 at the top of the recently-opened ramp leading from the new underground station at Porscheplatz). The fate of the other remaining systems remained unclear
Go to the photographs


The Renaissance of Tramways in the 1980s and Beyond : What should a modern tramway be ?

There was a remarkable renaissance of the concept of tramways in the 1980s. The public and some politicians now thought that previous closures had been a bad idea and plans were drawn up to retain, modernise and in numerous cases, reintroduce trams. Deciding that they might be a good thing was not necessarily a green light to build new tramways, at least until a debate had been undertaken as to what form they should take. Should they replace buses or integrate with them? Should there be tunnels in city centres ? Should trams be segregated from other traffic including pedestrians ? Should trams take their power from overhead cables or other methods, such as the ground-charging system used in sections of the Bordeaux tramway pictured below ? 
Should they replace under-used heavy rail lines ? What height should the platforms be to allow easy access to trams? Should other types of "tram" be considered as an alternative?    InTramCities photos help show many of the issues involved.
Analysis by Gordon Stewart here

Closed Tramway Alignments

Despite the numerous new tramway openings in recent years, some traditional tram tracks have been closed. In most cases this has been in favour of improved alignments or tunnels but not always
A recent closure is that of route 104 on the south side of Mulheim, Germany in August 2023 (see photo below) which runs primarily through an old established residential district (Kahlenberg)
Photos in the InTramCities collection illustrate other examples.
Click here for photos along alignements which were later closed.   (text only currently available on-line)

More tramway photograph series : Copyrights owned by the photographer

Non-European tramway systems by Gordon Stewart
Hong Kong, China in 1981
Heliopolis, Egypt in 1998

InTramCities with Ian Stewart  Photographs by Ian Stewart 

Naples, Italy in 1973 : The first tramway photographs ever taken by Gordon Stewart
Antwerp, Belgium in 1975 by Gordon Stewart

Nordhausen (Germany) in 2005 by Phil Barnes

National Tramway Museum, Crich, UK in 1990 by Gordon Stewart
Summerlee Museum of Scottish Industrial Life, Coatbridge UK in 2017 by Gordon Stewart

Paris, France : Line T5 "Tramway on Tyres" using the Translohr system  in 2017 by Gordon Stewart


Bordeaux, France :   7th - 9th April, 2024
Bordeaux's three-line second generation tramway has been regularly extended and a completely new line (D) was built in two stages : December 2019 and February 2020. Serving the north-west of the city it joins line C to access the city centre  as the existing network comprises just three discrete routes (Lines A, B and C) through the city centre with three interchange points. A feature of several of the more recent extensions, including to the Airport, is extensive single-track running with passing points located at the stations. This leads to delays at stations and relatively slow running. This is partially compensated for by relatively long distances between tram stops in the more sparsely populated outer suburban areas. With most routes now branching near their extemities, including one alongside a local railway joining line C using a short stretch of abandoned railway alignment, large numbers of passengers have been attracted on to the tramway requiring an increasingly intensive service. The Bordeaux tramway has been a great success - so much so that calls have been made for a full underground metro to be built to relieve the pressure on an increasingly overloaded system           

Line D, which was opened in two stages (December 2019 and February 2020), features an extensive section of ground current-collection using the APS system as seen in the photo above taken at Place Tourny, close to where the line joins the existing network near one of the three interchange points of the system at Quinconces. Bordeaux pioneered the Alstom-designed collection system which is used extensively throughout the city to eliminate the many objections raised to the use of overhead wiring, particularly in areas of exceptional architectural interest.    

Wroclaw, Poland : 8th-10th October, 2023
One of Europe's largest tramway systems continues to expand, the latest being a new route from the city centre to the western suburb of Nowy Dwor, opened on September 2nd 2023 with a parade of historic trams and buses. It was the second major opening of the year. On May 13th a new link was opened in the Popowice area of the city giving a new direct link to the city centre for services from the Tarcynski Arena, Gornicza and Dokerska. 

Above : The new route to Nowy Dwor is built as reserved track on Robotnicza and Strzegomska with the exception of the final stage around the edge of the said-named residential areaThe trams operate alongside an intensive bus service, including route 106 to the city's airport. In the view above showing an inbound Moderus Gamma tram at Wroclawski Park Przemyslowy where the new alignment joins the existing traditional tramway where a turning circle had existed in the greenery in the area behind the tram. The short section between here and Srubowa, previously served as the last portion of a short branch from the Lesnica line was upgraded to the new standard. Trams now serve Nowy Dwor both from the existing branch and from the city centre on the direct link from pl. Orlat Lwowskich which was opened in June 2021 as the first stage of this ambitious expansion. A new junction with this line had allowed trams from Lesnica to reach the city centre at Orlat Lwowskich as well as the traditional point at plac Jana Pawla II. 

Palermo, Italy : 18th September, 2023
A new tramway in the Sicilian capital Palermo opened on 30th December 2015. The initial network, which remains unchanged today, has two independent sections : in the south west from the central station to the retail park at Roccella and in the west from Notarbartolo station with three branches, including to Pollaci/Calatafimi, the latter branch being constructed as single track along either side of the busy urban motorway ring road. This meant that neither of the two systems penetrated the historic centre of the city, but the regular bus line 102 acts as a connector service. The success of the tramway has led the city to develop plans for further expansion and, crucially, a link between the two separate operations

Above : Palermo's trams do not have to fight through the city's congested streets as much as might have been expected due to the significant amount of reserved track. Here, one of the current fleet of 17 Flexity trams purchased from Bombardier heads towards the Centrale railway station on Via Padre Guiseppe Puglisi approaching Amedeo d'Aosta tram stop on the south-western line

Lund, Sweden : 26th July, 2023
The small but historic city of Lund, lying close to the big city of Malmo in southern Sweden  opened a short 5.5 km, 9 stop tram line in December 2020. There had been no first-generation tram system and in view of the city's relatively small population (94,000 in 2020) the project was somewhat surprising and controversial.  One of the main driving forces was the "green" agenda. The line links the main railway station with the University and University Hospital and a major Science and Technology Park, stretching out into open, developing land. The new suburb of Brunnshog is being developed on a green-field site along the tram line with medium-rise apartment blocks under construction. Plans are in place for an expanded network but the rate of development is likely to be determined by the future composition of the local governing council. The majority party in office at the time of the line's opening were not in favour of further construction.

Above : One of  Lund's brightly coloured fleet of  Urbos-3 trams delivered by CAF of Spain at Clemenstorget, outside the Central Station. The view is along Sankt Lorentigatan, from which motor traffic has been removed. The church is the Allhelgonakyrka.

Aarhus, Denmark : 22nd July, 2023
Aarhus was the first Danish city to reintroduce trams, its new network opening in stages from 2017. A new street tramway line was built along the waterfront, originally home to old docks, alongside Kystvejen, Skollebacken and Havnegade with a link to the main station. The waterfront alignment connects two formerly independently-operated local railways, to Grenaa in the north (which terminated at Ostbanetorvet on Kystvejen) and to Odder in the south which terminated at the main station. Trams from the north are now of Stadler's Tango stable and  terminate at the main station. Trams from Odder feature Stadler's more tramway-suited Variobahn design.  Trams from Odder use most of the new waterfront route before turning north-west along Norrebrogade on to which is a genuine street tramway serving amongst others the University and University hospital. The latter has been constructed on an expansive site on the edge of the city. Frequencies on this urban section are increased by services commencing at the main station. The hospital is the terminus for many services as the line subsequently runs through mostly open countryside to Lystrup and alternatively on a short branch from this route at Lisbjerg. At Lystrup terminus there is a connection with the Grenaa line which offers a fast, limited stop service directly to the city, betraying its railway origins. 

Above : A Variobahn tram calls at the Skolebakken tram stop on the new waterfront tram alignment. This Line 2 service will go beyond the main station and continue south to the small town of Odder over the local railway line which was converted to light rail standards for Aarhus' Letbane (Light-rail) project. This section of line also carries Line 2 services from Grenaa operated by Tango trams with a slightly "heavier" feel making them genuine tram-trains.

Odense, Denmark : 20th and 21st July, 2023
Odense became the second Danish city to reintroduce trams when a new 14.5 km route was inaugurated in May 2022. Points have already been built into the first route at two places along the route to allow planned extensions to be linked up quickly.

Above : One of Odense's fleet of Stadler Variobahn trams runs into the Odeon area having just left the main city centre tram stop at Albani Torv, en route to the main station and ultimately Tarup. This area was once a busy four-lane highway and  removing traffic has allowed a large area of the historic Odeon and Carl Nielsens quarters to be redeveloped in an extremely tasteful way with apartments, a hotel and a major concert hall as well as the new tramway. 

Edinburgh, United Kingdom : 24th June, 2023
After many years of planning, the 2.9 mile (4.7 km) extension of the Edinburgh tram line from the city centre to Newhaven opened on 7th June 2023. The line runs from Picardy Place, which replaced the nearby temporary terminus of York Place, along Leith Walk and through Leith to Newhaven, passing the Ocean Terminal, a retail centre in a redevelopment area alongside Leith Docks and home to the museum ship, the Royal Yacht Britannia.  

Above : The new extension links central Edinburgh with Leith, running along Leith Walk. The long construction period was controversial due to the disruption caused but has resulted in an attractive traffic-calmed road. Tram 265 heads towards Leith.

Manchester, United Kingdom : 15th June, 2023
The most recent extension to the Manchester Metrolink system was from Pomona on the Eccles route to the Trafford Centre, an enormous out-of-town shopping centre. This opened on 22nd March, 2020. Due to congestion in the city centre, the line currently terminates at Deansgate-Castlegate but this still means that trams from the Trafford Centre have to pass through the system bottleneck at Cornbrook.  Photos also illustrate the Bury line (as far as Whitefield) and the city centre stops at St Peter's Square and Exchange Square. 

Above : The stub terminus at The Trafford Centre. One of the entrances to the enormous mall is seen on the right of the photo. To the left is the Trafford Palazzo shopping centre which has its own tram stop, Barton Dock Road. The tower at the development is a modern construction

Linz, Austria : 16th May, 2023
In the last twenty years, Linz has built a tram tunnel to better connect the main railway station to the tram network, extended in the south to the rapidly developing Solar City, in the south-west to Traun, feeding into the new tunnel at Hauptbahnhof and regauging and reequipping the steep adhesion tram line to the Postlingberg whilst extending it into the city centre at Hauptplatz.
The tramway uses an unusual 900 mm gauge track requiring a gauge reduction from a more standard 1000 mm on the Postlingbergbahn, for which suitably "retro" styled articulated trams were purchased to replace the old bogie trams. Three historical trams were retained and re-gauged for museum purposes.

Above : The south-eastern portal of the tram subway brings trams to the old surface tram stop at Bulgariplatz, with Herz-Jesu-Kirche built in free-light at the bottom of the ramp. Highly visible signage has been placed at all three tunnel portals. 

Bern, Switzerland : 13th June and 18th August, 2022
The network was greatly expanded in December 2010 with the new opening of a new line from Kaufmannischer Verband westwards to Bumpliz Unterfuhrung where it branches to Bumpliz and Brunnen Westside Bahnhof. Rolling stock was supplemented with Combino trams supplied by Siemens in three batches between 2002 and 2010. 

Above : Combino 659, from the third and final batch of deliveries, is seen on Marktgasse at Barenplatz tram stop in the picturesque city centre.

Innsbruck, Austria : 21st and 22nd July, 2022
Coverage of central Innsbruck, the route to Amras and the recent extensions to Peerhofsiedlung/Technik West in the west of the city and to Schutzenstrasse/Josef-Kirschbaumer-Strasse in the east

Above : Tram 371 approaches Jugendherberge tram stop on Reichenauer Strasse on a service to Schutzenstrasse. A further extension of this route, to the station at Rum, is under construction. In the west, preparations are being made to extend the network from Technik West to Vols.

Freiburg (Germany) : 10th-13th October, 2019
The south German city of Freiburg-im-Breisgau has a successful tramway system which has undergone an number of expansions in the 21st century. The latest, the so-called Rotteckring route, which relieves the tastefully rebuilt and largely pedestrianised city centre of tram congestion at the central interchange at Bertoldsbrunnen, was opened on 16th March, 2019.  

Above : View south along the new Rotteckring line with tram 255 approaching Stadttheater tram stop. Here it crosses the intensively served line between Hauptbahnhof and the old city's central junction at Bertoldsbrunnen. This part of the new route has been extensively traffic calmed and the part in front of the futuristic University Library and the classical Theater on the right has become a haven for cyclists. To the left of the road but not in shot is the imposing building of the city's University and the memorial to the city's former synagogue which was razed to the ground by fire in an attack in 1938. 

Basel (Switzerland) : 9th October, 2019
In recent years, Basel's tram system has been extended beyond the city's limits into both France (St Louis Station) and Germany (Weil-am-Rhein Station) as well as being requipped with Bombardier Flexity trams for the BVB urban services company and Stadler Tango trams in their distinctive bright yellow and red livery for the BLT lines. BLT (Basel Land Transport) operates lines into the local canton and retains its autonomy although in practice the network is well integrated. Illustrating the proximity of international borders, one of BLT's lines briefly passes through French territory to reach Rodersdorf and prior to World War II, city routes also reached across borders.

Above : A Basel tram enters Germany. In the middle distance is the border control point between Switzerland and Germany, with storage warehouses at the port of Basel immediately behind.  Trams were extended into Germany in 2014. This tram will turn right out of Zollstrasse into Hauptstrasse in the Friedlingen area of Weil-am-Rhein which is separated from the main part of Weil by extensive railway lines and railfreight marshalling yards. The new line crosses the railway on a new bridge to terminate at Weil-am-Rhein Bahnhof. There are plans to extend the line further, but, perhaps surprisingly, not directly into the town centre along Weil's own Hauptstrasse. Passengers turning left would shortly reach the pedestrian bridge over the River Rhein and arrive in France.

Le Mans (France) : 22nd August, 2019
Le Mans operates a two-line tramway, first opened in November 2007. There was originally a shared central section between Universite and Saint-Martin but with the opening of a new branch to Bellevue on August 30th, 2014, the joint section ran only between Prefecture and Saint-Martin.  Originally served by 23 Alstom Citadis trams, the fleet was expanded to 34 following the opening of the Bellevue branch.

Above : The route from the University reaches the city centre via the long and straight Rue Gambetta, crossing the river Sarthe and rising steeply to Place de la Republique. Tram 1018 is named "Trouve Chauvel" after Ariste Jacques Trouve-Chauvel, a 19th century businessman and politician in the city. Most trams are named after communes in the Le Mans metropolitan area.
Angers (France) : 21st August, 2019
Angers opened its second genertion tramway in 2011 and Ligne A has 25 stations along its 12 km route length. Construction is currently under way for lines B and C which are not due to open until 2022. Line A is currently curtailed at Moliere with the northern half to Avrille-Ardenne closed temporarily whilst junctions are installed for the new lines. This photo series covers the city centre and southern section of the line to Roseraie.

Above : Angers city centre at the Place du Ralliement tram stop. The tram awaits departure to run along Rue d'Alsace to Boulevard du Marechal Foch. It has just climbed the steep incline of Rue de la Roe from the tramstop at Place Moliere on the banks of the River Maine. This short stretch of tramway receives its power through the APS system which supplies electricity through a contact shoe from a centre "rail" and thus dispenses with the need for overhead wires. The conductor is isolated into short strips which are only activated when the tram is directly above. This French system was pioneered in Bordeaux and adopted for two sections of the Angers tramway deemed to be environmentally sensitive.   
Nantes (France) : 19th-20th August, 2019
Coverage of the city centre. 

Above :  Nantes was the first of France's "second generation" tramways, but the system's inauguration in 1985 came just as low-floor trams were being developed. This left the city with a fleet of Alstom TFS-1 high-floor trams which were subsequently extended with a low-floor centre section (see photo above).  Nantes continued to buy similarly-modified TFS-1 trams which were originally planned to be a standard for new French tramways but in practice were unique to Nantes. For their next batches, Nantes went to Adtranz for their Incentro design rather than to Alstom for their Citadis model which had become the "French standard" and later to Spanish manufacturer CAF for trams of their Urbos 3 range. In the city centre, the tram lines follow wide boulevards which were first created following the filling in of branches of the River Loire and its local tributary (which was diverted into a culvert) in the late 1920s and 1930s.    
Nottingham (United Kingdom) : 18th August, 2019
Coverage of the Clifton line and the city centre

Above : Alstom Citadis tram 227 crosses the River Trent on the now tram and pedestrian only Wilford Toll Bridge, having left the Meadows Embankment tram stop en route to Clifton

Sassari (Italy) : 3rd June, 2019
Sassari is the second largest settlement on the Italian island of Sardinia with a population of 127,000 and an urban area of around 220,000.  A short (4.331 km) tramway marketed as Metrosassari opened in October 2006 with a 2.45 km urban segment. The remainder opened over railway tracks from Sassari station to Santa Maria di Pisa in September 2009. The track gauge is 950 mm to match that of the railway. The street-running portion is single track with two passing loops. 

Above : Tram SS02 is one of four AnsaldoBreda "Sirio" designs with additional features by the famous Italian design house Pininfarina. It is seen at Cliniche station, one of two, along with Stazione, where there is a passing loop. The route loops around the University Hospital area and returns to the city centre along the Viale Italia but stops short of the old city at the Emiciclo Garibaldi gardens area. There are no plans to extend the line within the city but there are plans to extend over the local narrow-gauge railways : beyond Santa Maria di Pisa to Sorso and also the 28-km line to the popular coastal resort of Alghero. Both projects require the reconstruction and electrification of the existing lines. 


Manchester (United Kingdom) : 28th and 29th April, 2019
Manchester city centre, the Ashton route between Droylesden and Ashton-under-Lyne and, briefly, central Rochdale and Oldham

Above : St Peter's Square. Two years ago, this tram stop was extensively redesigned to accommodate the new second city crossing. Although this represents modern Manchester, the city is experiencing a substantial spurt of growth. The rising skyscrapers in the distance in the Deansgate-Castlefield tramstop area are new, substantially changing the vista  along Lower Mosley Street


Almada (Portugal) : 29th March, 2019 
Almada is one of a number of rapidly growing communities on the south bank of the Tagus estuary opposite Portugal's capital city, Lisbon. A new tramway, branded Metro Transportes do Sul was opened in three stages between May 2007 and December 2008, with two branches combining to run through the centre of Almada to the port area of Cacilhas from where there is a frequent ferry service to Lisbon's Cais do Sodre. 

Above : The enormous hilltop statue of Jesus Christ overlooks the Tagus estuary and the city of Lisbon, but there are fine views of the monument from behind on the southern branch of the Metro, such as from along Avenida 23 de Julho Vitoria Liberal. This Siemens articulated tram has left Parque de Paz tram stop and nears Antonio Gedeao   

Lisbon (Portugal) : 27th, 28th and 30th March, 2019 
This series augments the extensive coverage of 2007 by covering the Ajuda branch and the more recently reopened branch from Praca L. Camoes to Campolinde

Above : April 2018 saw the reopening of line 24 to Campolinde, albeit only from Camoes, with the old tracks between Camoes and Cais do Sodre, although extant, not connected. The line had been closed for 23 years. The reopening marked a change of attitude to the tramway from the city authorities which had recently assumed full control of the transport operator, Carris. Lisbon's network had contracted significantly in the face of metro construction, traffic congestion and the cheaper availability of buses compared with trams suitable for the 900 mm gauge tracks and extremely hilly terrain of the city. Apart from 10 articulated trams introduced in 1995 and only suitable for the riverside route to Belem and Alges, Lisbon relies on its remaining "remodelled" trams, technically updated but otherwise virtually unchanged from their 1930s appearance. The reopened route had to be served by the existing fleet, putting severe pressure on other lines. The line still has to contend with severe traffic congestion, especially between Camoes and Rata, but things were relatively quiet when this photo was taken around midday at Praca do Principe Real.        

Nurnberg (Germany) : 29th September - 2nd October, 2018 
In 1994, the city council of Nurnberg decided to retain its tramway despite its original plan to replace it with an underground railway system. Whilst several routes have subsequently fallen victim to expansion of the U-Bahn, there have been modest extensions elsewhere.  A short link between Hauptbahnhof and Aufsessplatz actually duplicated a U-Bahn alignment, but provided much-needed connectivity in the shrinking network. The most recent extension, from Thon to Am Wegfeld, could possibly be the first stage of a much longer inter-urban light rail line to Erlangen and Herzogenaurath, a decision on which is due in the next few years.

Above : The historical city of Nurnberg has cut its tram system back as its U-Bahn has developed. Nevertheless there remain many good opportunities to photograph trams against a historical background, such as this view of the city's walls at Mohrengasse with the tram entering Spitteltorgraben from Westtorgraben. The castle dominates the background.


Zagreb (Croatia) : 19th-21st August, 2018
The Croatian capital city has an extensive tramway system, primarily street running, but slowly undergoing modernisation. The rolling stock has been extensively renewed with articulated cars built locally by the Crotram industrial consortium. The one genuine light-rail line, in the southern suburbs, was closed for reconstruction between Savski Most and Sopot.   

Above :  Zagreb is slightly uusual with respect to the amount of gutter-running throughout the system and there is the obvious intention to retain such an arrangement as trackwork is renewed.  Although some sections of the network were closed outright for upgrading, the gutter-running tracks in Savska Cesta, seen here with articulated tram 2283 on the soutbound track at Vjesnik tram stop, are being relaid  whilst trams still pass.


Elblag (Poland) : 14th June, 2018
The tramway in the smaller town of Elblag has received a significant amount of investment in recent years and a new link in the median strip of 12. Lutego has improved route options and improved journey times between Ogolna and the railway station. A number of of single-track alignments remain on this metre-gauge system and are likely to do so for many years. The ageing fleet of Konstal bogie trams has been augmented by six new 121N articulated trams from PESA in 2006 and three double-ended Duwag M8C "Stadtbahnwagen" dating from 1985 and arriving in 2013 after withdrawal from the fleet in Augsburg, Germany. The tramway authorities expect these trams to give a further twenty years of service.  In 2017 a contract was awarded to Modertrans for three new partly low-floor four axle trams.

Above : The modern face of Elblag's tramway, but still not totally typical of the network in transition. A second-hand ex-Augsburg tram, 33 years old, but recently modernised provides a step-change from the fleet of Konstal bogie trams and although not low-floor throughout like their deliveries from PESA, the 8-axlers have a low-floor centre section. This is the new link on 12. Lutego, seen northwards with a tram heading for Druska via the railway station.

Gdansk (Poland) : 13th and 15th June, 2018
Two branches of the Gdansk tramway network have been extended recently. This series looks at these new lines, plus sections which were closed for reconstruction during the last InTramCities visit in 2011. There are a number of views taken elsewhere on the network, which was covered more comprehensively in 2011. 
Above : Ex-Dortmund Stadtbahn N car 1165 heads towards central Gdansk on a central reservation on Bulonska at Budapesztanska tram stop. This is one of the new extensions (from Siedlce, primarily along Rakoczego) which branches after Warnenska to serve Migowo, which is seen in the background of the photo above and, separately, Bretowo PKM railway station. Significant investment has recently been put into a new local railway system, run by PKM, serving the tri-city area of Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia and including a branch to serve Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport.  
Darmstadt (Germany) : 30th April, 2018
Once the seat of the rulers of the independent German Grand Duchy of Hessen, Darmstadt has now transformed itself into the unified country's "City of Science". It has an extensive tramway system characterised by a central interchange at Luisenplatz from where lines run in three directions and tracks encircle a 33-meter high column topped off by a statue of Grand Duke Ludwig I, which was erected in 1844. One very long line takes trams well beyond the city boundaries, to Alsbach in the south and featuring a limited-stop service as far as Eberstadt. A further line crosses the city boundary to serve the community of Griesheim to the west. Both these were originally steam-hauled light railways. The branch to Kranichstein was opened in 2003 and an extension in Arheiligen beyond Loewenplatz in 2011.  

Above :  The bustling Luisenplatz, with the base of the Ludwig column. Fleet renewals have led to most trams now being low-floor, but some high-floor vehicles remain. Accessibility for these and capacity expansions for all are provided by low-floor trailers and Darmstadt is unusual for following this plan which was once common in Germany and elsewhere but is now a rarity.
Mainz (Germany) : 29th April, 2018
As a smaller tramway system, it was one which risked closure in the 1980s and one route, to Ingelheimer Aue was abandoned, but a change in philosophy has led to security and one major new extension. Part of the route to Ingelheimer Aue has also been reopened to serve new developments around the docks on the river Rhine. 

Above : Tram 228, one of a number of new Variobahn vehicles from Stadler, runs along Am Ostergraben in the residential suburb of Bretzenheim, approaching Ludwig-Nauth-Strasse tram stop on its way to Lerchenberg. This is a major new tram route, opened in 2016 and featuring extensive stretches of "interurban" tramway, which links the expanding sattelite community of Lerchenberg, site of a number of major office developments, with the city centre. It also serves a large expanse of hitherto undeveloped flat land close to the city centre, where a new stadium has been built for the city's football team which has, in recent seasons, established itself in Germany's top division. Although apparently "in the middle of nowhere", development is now taking place with various scientific and research establishments associated withh the nearby Johannes Gutenberg university.


Frankfurt-am-Main (Germany) : 27th - 28th April, 2018
Keen to remove trams from the streets of the city centre, Frankfurt struggled to find a way to convert its enormous tramway system into a genuine U-Bahn as although it developed an extensive network of tunnels, its outer lines remained traditional tramways. Grappling with vehicles of varying width and platforms of varying heights, many years of  compromise solutions ensued. Now things are more rational, with upgraded lines with tunnel sections in the city centre designated as U-Bahn and traditional tramways, saved after public protest, now back in fashion and benefiting from the advance of low-floor technology.

Above : Not the longest stretch of new tramway but possibly one of the most significant. Despite Frankfurt moving most of its city centre tramways into tunnels in the 1980s and 1990s and now having an excellent network of "U-Bahn" lines albeit with significant amounts of surface running outside the central area, the move towards a completely rail-free city centre was halted by public protests in the 1990s. This led to the retention of the "Altstadtstrecke" through the old city centre and eventually the return of trams to Konstablerwache (above). A busy city square on the main shopping street, Zeil, Konstablerwache has an intensive service of regional and city underground trains below ground, but the link along Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse and Kurt-Schumacher-Strasse restored a surface connection in the north-south axis. Prior to its opening, tram line 12 from the north-western direction had been diverted into a stub terminus in Grosse Friedberger Strasse, a narrow street parallel to Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse. It was impossible to access the ramp built for services from Preungesheim even though it was close to the route's stop at Hessendenkmal, but line 12 was also not regarded as suitable for upgrading to the necessary standard for designation as a "U-Bahn".  The unsatisfactory arrangement at Grosse Friedberger Strasse put the whole line at risk. Not only can line 12 now run through to the south of the city, a new conventional tramway line has been built from  Gravensteiner Platz, also in the Preungesheim area, which joins route 12 at Friedberger Platz. The branch to Rebstockbad and a "missing link" along Stresemannallee for route 17 add to the improvements to the conventional tramway network made in recent years.


Antwerp (Belgium) : 2nd - 5th April, 2018
Antwerp's large tram network is undergoing considerable improvement - investment in upgraded track, large numbers of new articulated trams to eventually replace the city's enormous fleet of PCC trams, the recent opening of tunnels long-built but mothballed on cost grounds, extensions to park-and-ride facilities on the city's edge, and now new surface tram lines are under construction as part of the planned redevelopment of older dockland areas close to the city centre.

Above : The most recent extension is that beyond the old Tollhuis terminal into the Eilandje area which includes the oldest of Antwerp's enormous dock complex. No longer used for commercial shipping, the area is being redeveloped for commercial, housing and leisure use, including the new "MAS" museum and cultural attraction, seen in the right of the picture. The short extension, which brings people right to the new museum and the nearby Red Star Line museum, which tells the story of the many emigrants to the New World who left Europe through Antwerp's port, is only the beginning of a larger tramway development which is currently under construction.


Malaga (Spain) : 9th March, 2018
Malaga's two-line metro system opened on July 30th, 2014, both with a terminus at El Perchel, the site of the city's rail and bus stations. The lines are almost entirely underground, with the exception of the outer end of Line 1 to Andalucia Tech, where it operates as a conventional tramway in a newly developing area with university buildings and a hospital. Work is in progress to extend the lines by two stops towards the city centre, with the next provisional terminus under Alameda Principal, the main thoroughfare between the old city and the adjacent port area. Further expansion is planned 

Above :  CAF tram 3044 has just reached the surface via the ramp immediately prior to Universidad metro station, which is in reality a tramway stop. The surrounding area is developing quickly. The tram stop takes its name from the presence of university faculty buildings.  The following stop, Clinico, reflects the presence of a new hospital.


Granada (Spain) : 7th March, 2018
The Metro de Granada is in reality a tramway with three underground stations along the eastern edge of the city centre. It eventually opened on September 21st, 2017 following commencement of construction in 2007 and an originally planned opening date of 2012. The 15.9 km long line features 26 stations, with three being below the Camino de Ronda and has four catenary-free sections, totalling 4.7 km, which are not in areas of any particular environmental or visual sensitivity. 

Above : A CAF tram is at Hipica station, running northbound. Immediately on leaving Hipica it will descend into the underground section of the route

See earlier series